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Types of Anemia in Dogs - Symptoms & Treatments

Types of Anemia in Dogs - Symptoms & Treatments

Numerous underlying health problems can cause anemia in dogs. Here, our Gaithersburg vets discuss the different types of anemia seen in dogs, along with symptoms of this serious disease and how it can be treated. 

Anemia in Dogs

Anemia is a serious condition that can afflict dogs and other pets. It's also an indicator of underlying illness or disease. When your pet's body isn't producing enough red blood cells or hemoglobin, or when your dog suffers severe blood loss due to conditions such as stomach ulcers or cancer, or has experienced an injury or accident, anemia can occur. 

Types of Anemia Seen in Dogs 

Blood Loss Anemia 

Severe blood loss due to a bleeding disorder, injury, or surgery can cause blood loss anemia, which can also be triggered by ulcers, parasites, internal bleeding due to cancer, or other health issues. 

Blood loss-related anemia is a type of regenerative anemia in dogs. This is because while the bone marrow increases production of red blood cells due to the decreasing number of cells being lost through bleeding, it is unable to meet the demand. 

Hemolytic Anemia 

This form of anemia is caused by the destruction or breakdown of red blood cells in your dog's body. Hemolytic anemia is often the result of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) or autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), or non-immune mediated anemia caused by low phosphorous levels, hereditary disease, toxins, or parasites. 

Aplastic or Non-Regenerative Anemia

Aplastic or non-regenerative anemia develops in dogs due to insufficient production of red blood cells. This form of anemia can occur due to toxin exposure, bone marrow disease, kidney disease, certain medications, chemotherapy drugs, or parvovirus.


Methemoglobinemia in dogs is caused by too much methemoglobin in the blood due to certain genetic disorders, or exposure to toxins including a number of different medications meant for human use only such as ibuprofen, acetaminophen or benzocaine.

Signs That Your Dog May Be Anemic

If your pooch is suffering from anemia you may notice one or more of the following symptoms. Your dog's anemia symptoms will vary based upon the underlying cause of your pup's condition.

  • Vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Swelling of the face or jaw
  • Black stools
  • Weight loss
  • Fast pulse or rapid breathing
  • Pale gums, ears, or eyes
  • Lethargy or weakness

Causes of Anemia in Dogs

There are a number of conditions that can result in your pup developing anemia. Some of the most common causes of anemia in dogs include:

  • Medications that interfere with red blood cell production
  • Blood loss caused by parasites 
  • Cancer
  • Kidney disease
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Cushing’s disease
  • Infectious diseases including canine distemper
  • Severe blood loss as a result of accident or injury
  • Toxins or poisons
  • Tick-borne diseases such as Lyme disease
  • Poor nutrition
  • Bone marrow disease
  • Intestinal bleeding
  • Chronic diseases that suppress red blood cell production

Treatment for Dogs with Anemia

If your pup is diagnosed with anemia, the treatment that your vet recommends will be based upon the underlying cause of the condition. Some of the treatments that your vet may recommend include:

  • Surgery
  • Blood transfusion
  • Bone marrow transfusion
  • Chemotherapy
  • Intravenous fluids
  • Change of existing medications
  • Antibiotics or immunosuppressive drugs
  • Potassium phosphate supplements
  • Gastrointestinal medication
  • Parasite or de-worming medications

The prognosis for dogs with anemia depends upon the availability of effective treatment for the underlying illness. Severe anemia in dogs can indicate a very serious or possibly fatal condition such as poisoning, cancer or an autoimmune condition. If your pooch is showing any signs of anemia contact your veterinarian as soon as possible to book an examination.

Preventing Anemia in Dogs

Preventing anemia in your dog comes down to preventing the conditions that cause anemia (whenever possible). Year-round parasite prevention medications to protect your dog against ticks, fleas, and worms is one way to help your dog avoid developing anemia.

Keeping toxic substances such as human medications and foods far out of your dog's reach as well as providing your dog with a healthy diet, may also help to prevent your dog from developing anemia.

If your canine companion is a breed that is susceptible to developing anemia (Shih Tzus, Labrador Retrievers, Miniature Schnauzers, and American Cocker Spaniels) regular wellness examinations twice yearly at your primary care veterinarian may help to detect the signs of anemia early, and provide treatment before the condition becomes more severe.

Note: The advice provided in this post is intended for informational purposes and does not constitute medical advice regarding pets. For an accurate diagnosis of your pet's condition, please make an appointment with your vet.

If your dog is experiencing a veterinary emergency, contact our Gaithersburg vets today. We are passionate about providing your pet with quality care.

New Patients Welcome

Veterinary Referral Associates is accepting new patients! Our experienced vets are passionate about the health of Gaithersburg companion animals. Get in touch today to book your pet's first appointment.

Contact (301) 926-3300